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Noria

Fi Wikipedia
The norias of Hama on the Orontes River in Syria (video).

Noria (Arabic kasa mu: ناعورة, nā'ūra, dodow kabea Nواعير nawāʿīr, ofi Syriac kasa mu: ܢܥܘܪܐ, nā'orā, lit. 'growler') yɛ scoop wheel a nsu na ɔyɛ edwuma dze ma nsu do kɔ nsu kwan kakraba bi mu, sɛ ɔyɛ nsu a wɔdze gugu ndɔbae do anaadɛ wɔdze nsu bɔkɔ nkurow na nkurase[1].

Dzin Na Nkyerɛase[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Abɔse[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Borɔfo kasa noria fi Spanish noria mu wɔ Arabic nā‘ūra (ناعورة), a ofi Arabic nyɛe a ɔkyerɛ "groan" anaa "grunt", wɔ ndze a ɔyɛ wɔ ber a orutwa no ho ntsi[2].

Noria versus Saqiyah

Asɛmfua noria no na wɔtaa dze dzi dwuma ma mfir a ɔdze tum a ɔwɔ nsu mu dzi dwuma dze dannan ntwahonan no. Wɔ mfir a mboa na ɔma ahoɔdzen fam no, asɛmfua a wɔtaa dze dzi dwuma nye saqiyah anaa saqiya. Wɔakyekyɛ mfir ahorow afofor a ɔtse dɛmara mu ekuwekuw wɔ nkɔnsɔnkɔnsɔn pɔmpɛ dzin ase. Naaso, wɔtaa dze mfir a wɔdze ma nsu a wɔdze dzi dwuma wɔ Finimfin Epuei, India, Spain na mbea afofor dzin dzi dwuma wɔ kwan a ɔnnyɛ dzen na ɔka bɔmu do, anaa dɛ ɔson mbrɛ mantɔw no tse. Sɛ nhwɛdo no, Al-Jazari nwoma a agye dzin a ɔfa mfir ho no dze ntwahonan a nsu na ɔka ne mfir afofor pii a wɔdze ma nsu so no ekuwekuw wɔ asɛmfua saqiya a wɔdze dzi dwuma tsitsir no ase. Ma ɔnye iyi bɔ ebira no, wɔ Spain no, wɔdze asɛmfua noria dzi dwuma ma ntwahonan ahorow ebien no nyinara, sɛ́ ebia mboa na ɔma ahoɔdzen anaadɛ nsu a ɔsen no.

Dwumadzi Ahorow[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Hydrographic demonstration piece near the ancient noria of the barrio of La Montaña, Aranjuez

Noria no yɛ edwuma a ɔfa nsu a ofir sor ba famu kɔ ​​sor a ɔkɔ sor no ho, dze ahoɔdzen a ofi esutsen bi mu no dzi dwuma. Ɔyɛ nsu ntwahonan kɛse bi a ɔyɛ tseatseaa a ɔwɔ ase a ne rim yɛ nsukoradze anaa adan a ɔtoatoa do a ɔma nsu fi esutsen no do kɔ nsu kwan bi a ɔwɔ ntwahonan no etsifi. N’adwen no tse dɛ ndɛ yi hydraulic odwenyi a ɔno so dze tum a nsu a ɔsen fa nsu mu no dze pam nsu no bi fi esutsen no mu no.

Siantsir a sɛ nsu ntwahonan a wohu wɔ nsu a wɔdze yɛ edwuma mu no, noria mma mfir tum nnyɛ adze fofor biara. Na abakɔsɛm mu noria kakra bi yɛ afrafra, a ɔyɛ nsu ntwahonan a mboa tum boa hɔn wɔ ma ɔtɔ do ebien mu. Annyɛ yie koraa no, nhwɛdo kor wɔ hɔ a wonyim a noria bi ma po mu nsu kɔ nkyen mu.

Abakɔsɛm[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

A noria running in Erlangen in southern Germany, on the river Regnitz
Remains of the medieval Albolafia noria in Cordoba, Spain (the wheel itself was reconstructed in the 20th century)

Na ntwahonan a wɔdze po do hyɛn ma nsu do epue wɔ tsetse Misraim wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do 4 A.Y.B. Dɛ mbrɛ John Peter Oleson kyerɛ no, ntwahonan a wɔakyekyɛ mu nye hydraulic noria no nyinara puei wɔ Egypt wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do 4 A.Y.B woehu famu tutu ho adanse a ɔkyerɛ dɛ nsu ntwahonan bi wɔ hɔ, a ɔtse dɛ saqiyah a ofi afeha a ɔtɔ do 3 A.Y.B. Papyrus bi a wɔyɛe wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do ebien A.Y.B Ptolemy Ahendzi wɔ Farao Ptolemy IV Philopator ahendzi mu wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do 3 A.Y.B.

Nsu ntwahonan a ɔwɔ ase nye nsu ntwahonan a ɔbor do, a mboa na nsu na okenyan, na ɔwɔ nyimpadua a wɔakyekyɛ mu (Latin tympanum) anaa dɛ ɔwɔ rim a wɔakyekyɛ mu, na Helafo mfirdwumayɛfo dze dzii dwuma wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do ebiasa nye 2 A.Y.B. mu no, Romani dansifo Vitruvius kaa mbrɛ noria no yɛ edwuma ho asɛm. Bɛyɛ afe 300 mu no, Romafo dze dɛtse nkuku a ɔson emu biara a wɔdze abata ho a wɔdze kyekyer ntwahonan a woebue mu ekyir, na wɔnam saayɛ do yɛɛ noria no sii ndua a wɔdze ayɛ adan no ananmu.

Islam Sika Mber mu no, Nkramofo mfirdwumayɛfo gyee norias fii tsetsetsee mu, a wɔyɛɛ nkɔdo wɔ noria mu. Sɛ nhwɛdo no, ofii a wɔdze tu kwan a wɔdze dzi dwuma dze ma ahoɔdzen a ofi efir a wɔdze ka kar mu kɔ efir a wɔdze ka kaar mu no yɛ mberɛw no, ibn Bassal (fl. 1038–1075) a ofi al-Andalus, a ɔyɛɛ akwampaefo dze flywheel dzii dwuma wɔ noria no na ɔyɛɛ nye saqiyah. Wɔ afe 1206 mu no, Ismail al-Jazari dze carrank a wɔdze dzi dwuma wɔ noria na saqiya no bae, na wɔdze adwen a ɔnye dɛ wɔbɛtsew ntamgyinafo do no kyerɛe dɛ mbrɛ ɔbɛyɛ a wɔbɛyɛ edwuma yie kɛse.

Nkramofo mfiredwumayɛfo dze norias dzii dwuma dze guu nsu mu nsu a ɔdze nsu no kɔ nkurow na ahaban mu. Sɛ nhwɛdo no, na Hama norias no kɛse yɛ mita 20 (anamɔn 66) na wɔda so ara dze dzi dwuma wɔ ndɛ mber yi mu (ɔwɔ mu dɛ seseiara ɔyɛ afɛfɛdze nkotsee dze). Ntwahonan a ɔso sen obiara no wɔ mbea 120 a wɔboaboa nsu ano na obotum ama nsu bɔbor lita 95 akɔ sor simba biara. Wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do 10 mu no, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi nwoma Al-Hawi ka noria bi a ɔwɔ Iraq a obotum ama sor bɛyɛ lita 153,000 dɔnhwer biara, anaa lita 2550 simba biara ho asɛm. Iyi yɛ ma wɔdze toto ndɛ norias a ɔwɔ Asia Epuei famu a otum ma lita 288,000 dɔnhwer biara, anaa lita 4800 simba biara no ho.

Mboaedze[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0196890414010863?via%3Dihub
  2. https://books.google.com.gh/books?id=jS7MBQAAQBAJ&pg=PR5&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false