Hatra

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Hatra
archaeological site, ancient city
DemonymHatrénien Sesa mu
CountryIraq Sesa mu
Capital ofKingdom of Araba Sesa mu
Located in the administrative territorial entityNineveh Governorate Sesa mu
Coordinate location35°35′17″N 42°43′6″E Sesa mu
Language usedAramaic of Hatra, Latin, Palmyrene Aramaic, Iranian, Koine Greek Sesa mu
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger, Fall of Hatra Sesa mu
Dissolved, abolished or demolished date241 Sesa mu
Heritage designationUNESCO World Heritage Site Sesa mu
World Heritage criteriaWorld Heritage selection criterion (ii), World Heritage selection criterion (iii), World Heritage selection criterion (iv), World Heritage selection criterion (vi) Sesa mu
Map

Hatra (Arabic: الحضر; Syriac: ‎ܚܛܪܐ) yɛ nkaano nkurow wɔ Upper Mesopotamia a ɔwɔ ndɛ da yi eastern Nineveh Governorate wɔ Iraq etsifi. Kurow no da 290 km (180 mi)Baghdad etsifiatɔyɛ na 110km (68 mi) Mosul anafo.

Ná Hatra yɛ akwantufo kurow a hɔn abɔ ho ban dzedzendzen na Arabfo Ahemman ketsewa Hatra no ahenkurow, a na ɔwɔ Roma na Partia/Persia ahemman no ntsam. Hatra nyaa nkɔdo wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do ebien (2) mu, na wɔsɛee no na wɔmaa hɔ wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do ebaasa (3) mu. Wohuu n’amamfõ a ɔyɛ nwonwa no wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do duakron (19) mu.

Dzin[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Wonyim Hatra dɛ al-Ḥaḍr (الحضر) wɔ Arabic kasa mu. Hɔn akyerɛw dɛ ḥṭrʾ (Ḥaṭrā) wɔ Hatran Aram nkyerɛwee mu, dzea ɔkyerɛ nye "aka a hɔn abɔ ho ban". Wɔ Syriac kasa mu no, wɔtaa kyerɛw no dodow kabea Ḥaṭrē. Wɔ Romafo nhoma ahorow mu no, hɔn akyerɛw dɛ Hela kasa mu Átra na Latin kasa mu Hatra na Hatris.

Wɔfrɛɛ kuropɔn no wɔ aban kwan do "Beit ʾElāhāʾ a nye nkyerase nye: "Onyankopɔn Fie", wɔ Hatran Aram nkyerɛwee mu na ber bi wɔkyerɛw too hɔ dɛ "Samash a Wɔaka Ho" (ḥtrʾ d-šmš].

Abakɔsɛm[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Fam tutu ho nsɛm biara nnyi hɔ a ɔfa kurow no ho ansa na Parthian ber no reba nanso ɔbɛyɛ dɛ anyɛ yiye koraa no, nyimpa a wɔtraa mpɔtsam hɔ no fi Seleucid ber do. Hatra nyaa nkɔdo wɔ Partiafo ase, wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do ekoro (1) na ebien (2) A.D. mu, dɛ nyamesom na aguadzibea. Akyir, kurow no bɛyɛɛ ebia Arab Ahenni a edzi kan a ɔwɔ Arab nkurow a efi Hatra, wɔ atsifi fam epuei, fa Palmyra, Baalbek naPetra, wɔ anafo fam atɔe no nkɔnsɔnkɔnsɔn no ahenkurow. Ná ɔmantɔw a na wodzi do fi Hatra na Hatra Ahemman, ahemman a ɔyɛ dzea ɔwɔ ahofadzi fã bi a ɔwɔ Parti Ahemman no atɔe fam hye do, a Arabia mmapɔmma na wodzi do.

Hatra bɛyɛɛ ɔhye do kurow a ɔho hia a hɔn abɔ ho ban na edzii dwuma tsitsir wɔ Partia Ko a ɔtɔ do ebien (2) no mu, na ɔgyinaa ntua a Roma Ahemman no dze bae mprɛn pii no ano. Wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do 2 Y.B. Hatra asraafo no dzii Sassanid Persiafoɔ a wɔreforo no do nkonyim wɔ afe 238 mu wɔ Shahrazoor ɔko no mu, nanso wɔhwee ase wɔ ɔno ekyi ber tsiaa bi wɔ afe 241 mu maa Sassanid hene Shapur I asraafo no na wɔsɛee hɔn. Amandze mu nsɛm a ɔfa Hatra asehweɛ ho no ka al-Nadirah, Araba Hene no babaa, a ɔdze kuro no maeɛ hyɛɛ Shapur nsa ber a na ɔdɔ no ho asɛm. Asɛm no ka sɛnea Shapur kum ɔhene no na ɔwaree al-Nadirah, nanso ekyir, ɔmaa wokum no nso ber a ohui dɛ onnyi aseda mma n’agya no.

Ná Hatra yɛ Partiafo kurow bi ho nhwɛdo a hɔn akora do yiye na ɔma wonya nsɛm pii. Na nye nhyehyɛe no yɛ kurukuruwa, na na afasu a ɔwɔ mu nye ekyi a nye kɛse bɛyɛ kilomita 2 (akwansin 1.2) etwa ho ehyia na abantsentsen bɛbor 160 na ɔgyina do. Ná temenos (τέμενος) bi etwa adan kronkron atsitsir a ɔwɔ kurow no finimfin no ho ehyia. Ná asɔredan ahorow no yɛ bɛyɛ hekta 1.2, na na Asɔredan Kɛse no na ɔwɔ hɔ kɛse, ɔdan kɛse bi a ɔwɔ akorae na adum a ber bi na ɔkɔ soro kodu mita 30 no. Na kuropɔn no agye dzin wɔ Hela, Mesopotamia, Kanaan, Aram na Arabia pantheons a wɔdze afrafra, a wɔfrɛ no Aram kasa mu dɛ Beiṯ Ĕlāhā ("Onyankopɔn Fie"). Ná kurow no wɔ asɔredan ahorow a wɔdze ma Nergal (Asiriafo-Babilonfo ne Akkadifo), Hermes (Helafo), Atargatis (Siro-Aramafo), Allat, Shamiyyah (Arabifo), na Shamash (Mesopotamiafo owia nyame). Anyame afofor a wɔkaa hɔn ho asɛm wɔ Hatran Aram nkyerɛwee ahorow no mu nye Aramfo Ba’al Shamayn, na ɔbea nyame a wɔfrɛ no Ashurbel, a ebia na ɔyɛ anyame ebien (2) no Asiria nyame Asur na Babilon Bel no a wɔdze hɔn ho hyɛɛ mu—ɔmfa ho dɛ na ankorankor yɛ mmarima no.

Sodzifo a Hɔn Akyerɛw Hɔn Dzin[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Wɔ nkyerɛwee ahorow a wohui wɔ Hatra mu no, wɔaka sodzifo pii ho asɛm. Tsetse nwoma akyerɛwfo ka sodzifo afofor ho asɛm ber na ber mu. Wɔto sodzifo a wodzii kan bae no dzin mrjʾ (māryā, "awurade") na hɔn a wodzii kan bae no dzin mlkʾ d-ʿrb ("Arabfo hene"; malkā, "ɔhene").

Name Title Date Portrait Note
1 Worod mry´
2 Ma’nu mry´
3 Elkud mry´ 155/156
4 Nashrihab mry´ 128/29 - 137/38 AD
5 Naṣru mry´ 128/29 - 176/77
6 Wolgash I mry´ and mlk Ebetumi aba dɛ na anuanom ebien (2) no yɛ mfɛfo sodizfo.
7 Sanatruq I mry´ and mlk 176/177
8 Abdsamiya mlk 192/93 - 201/202 Ɔboaa Roma ɔhempɔn Pescennius Niger
9 Sanatruq II mlk - King 207/08 - 229/230 Ɔbɛyɛɛ Romafo no sodzifo wɔ Gordian III ase wɔ Roma na Persia Ɔkõ ahorow no mu.

Hatra Mfonyin[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Sɛnea John M. Rosenfield kyerɛ no, Hatra ohoni no yɛ Partiafo amandze fã, na ɔwɔ nsɛdzi pii wɔ ntadze, ndzɛmba a wɔdze siesie fie anaa sɛnea wogyina hɔ ho, a ɔtaa yɛ kɛse na ɔwɔ enyim, a wɔtaa trɛw nan mu. Mpɛn pii no, wobu Hatra adansi no ankasa dɛ Partiafo adansi ho nhwɛdo. Yebetumi ahu nsɛdzi ahorow wɔ Kushanfo Mfonyin no nso ho, esiane amandze mu nsakrae tẽẽ a ɔkɔɔ do wɔ Mesopotamia mpɔtsam hɔ na Kushan Ahemman no ntsam saa ber no ntsi, anaadɛ efi Partiafo Mfonyin ho nyimdze ekoro a ɔdze mfonyin ahorow a ɔte dɛm ara ba no.

Ndɛ Hatra[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Wɔdze Hatra dzii dwuma dɛ bea a wobuee sini no ano wɔ 1973 sini The Exorcist mu, na efi 1985 no ayɛ UNESCO Wiadze Egyapadze Bea.

Walter Andrae a ɔwɔ Germanfo kuw a wotutu fam a wɔyɛ edwuma wɔ Assur no mu na odzii kan yɛɛ bea no ho nhwehwɛmu fi 1906 kosi 1911. Nanso fi 1951 nkutoo na Iraqfo fam tutufo na hɔn etutu fam wɔ nhyehyɛe kwan do. Efi 1980 mfe no mu no, Italiafo Fam Etutuw Akwantu, a R. Ricciardi Venco (Turin Sukuupɔn) na ɔkyerɛɛ kwan no, huu ndzɛmba atsitsir wɔ Hatra. Wɔtwee adwene sii ofie bi a ɔho hia ("Ɔdan A"[12]), a ɔbɛn Temenos, na nnyigyei a emu dɔ wɔ Temenos finimfin mpɔtsam hɔ do. Mprempren Akwantu no reyɛ edwumadzen wɔ nnwuma ahorow a ɔfa bea a wotutu fam hwehwɛ tsetsefo ndzɛmba ho no a wɔbɛkora do na nye nkɔdo ho. Wɔ afe 1990 mu no, Polandfo akwantufo bi a wɔyɛe wɔ Poland Asoɛe a Ɔhwɛ Mediterranea Fam Etutuw Do Sukuupɔn (Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology University of Warsaw) a ɔwɔ Warsaw no yɛɛ kurow no afasu a wɔdze bɔ ho ban no ho kyerɛwtohɔ na wosuaa ho adze. Michał Gawlikowski (PCMA UW) na ɔkyerɛɛ kuw no kwan.

Wɔ afe 2004 mu no, Daa Telegraph no (The Daily Telegraph} kae dɛ "Hatra adum na ahonyi a hɔn akora do yiye no ma ɔyɛ Iraq fam tutu mbea a ɔyɛ nwonwa kyɛn biara no mu ekoro".

Mfonyinsie Bea[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Wimu Tsebea[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Hatra wɔ wimu tsebea a ɔyɛ hyew a ɔyɛ kusuu fã (Köppen wimu tsebea nkyekyem BSh). Osu dodow no ara tɔ wɔ awɔw ber mu. Sɛ wɔkyekyem pɛpɛɛpɛ a, afe biara wimu hyew wɔ Hatra yɛ 20.7 °C (69.3 °F). Nsu bɛyɛ mm 257 (10.12 in) tɔ afe biara.

hideClimate data for Hatra (Al Hadar)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.8

(55.0)

15.8

(60.4)

19.8

(67.6)

25.3

(77.5)

33.0

(91.4)

39.0

(102.2)

42.3

(108.1)

42.1

(107.8)

37.9

(100.2)

31.0

(87.8)

22.5

(72.5)

14.8

(58.6)

28.0

(82.4)

Average low °C (°F) 3.2

(37.8)

4.6

(40.3)

7.6

(45.7)

11.7

(53.1)

17.3

(63.1)

21.8

(71.2)

24.8

(76.6)

24.1

(75.4)

19.7

(67.5)

14.3

(57.7)

8.8

(47.8)

4.1

(39.4)

13.5

(56.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 43

(1.7)

39

(1.5)

49

(1.9)

36

(1.4)

13

(0.5)

0

(0)

0

(0)

0

(0)

0

(0)

8

(0.3)

25

(1.0)

44

(1.7)

257

(10.1)

Source: climate-data.org

Hwɛ Iyi Nso[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]