Everglades Ɔman Prama

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Everglades Ɔman Prama
National Park of the United States, tourist attraction, national park
Part ofEverglades & Dry Tortugas Sesa mu
Inception6 Mumu 1947 Sesa mu
Native labelEverglades National Park Sesa mu
IUCN protected areas categoryIUCN category V: Protected Landscape/Seascape Sesa mu
CountryUnited States of America Sesa mu
Located in the administrative territorial entityMonroe County, Miami-Dade County Sesa mu
Coordinate location25°18′45″N 80°41′15″W Sesa mu
AuthorityNational Park Service Sesa mu
Visitor centerErnest F. Coe Visitor Center‎, Flamingo Visitor Center, Gulf Coast Visitor Center, Royal Palm, Shark Valley Visitor Center Sesa mu
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger, list of World Heritage in Danger Sesa mu
OperatorNational Park Service Sesa mu
Heritage designationUNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar site Sesa mu
Official website URLhttps://www.nps.gov/ever/index.htm Sesa mu
List of monumentsNational Register of Historic Places listings in Everglades National Park Sesa mu
World Heritage criteriaWorld Heritage selection criterion (viii), World Heritage selection criterion (ix), World Heritage selection criterion (x) Sesa mu
Significant placeFlorida City Sesa mu
Category for mapsGeography and ecology of the Everglades Sesa mu
Category for the view of the itemCategory:Views of Everglades National Park Sesa mu
Map

Everglades Ɔman Prama yɛ Amerika ɔman mmɔntsen do atrae a ɔbɔ mfitsiase Everglades a ɔwɔ Florida no anafo fam ɔha biara mu duabien ho ban. Abɔntsen do atrae no yɛ sare a ɔso kyɛn biara a ɔhɔ yɛ hyew kyɛn biara wɔ United States na sare a ɔso kyɛn biara wɔ Mississippi Asubɔntsen no apuei fam. Sɛ wɔkyekyem pɛpɛɛpɛ a, nnyimpa ɔpepem koro na wɔba abɔntsen so afe biara. Everglades yɛ ɔman mmɔntsen do atrae a ɔtɔ do ebasa a ɔso kyɛn biara wɔ United States a ɔbɛn hɔ no mu wɔ Owu Bon na Yellowstone akyi. UNESCO dze Everglades na Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve too gua wɔ 1976 mu na wɔdze abɔntsen do atrae no too Wiadze Agyapadze Bea wɔ 1979 mu, na Ramsar Apam no dze abɔntsen do atrae no kaa nye Wetlands a ɔho Hia Amanaman Ntam ho wɔ 1987. Everglades yɛ mbea ebasa pɛ a ɔwɔ... wiadze no dɛ ɔbɛpue wɔ list ebasa no nyinara mu.

Ɔman mmɔntsen do atrae dodo no ara kora asase ho ndzɛmba soronko do; Everglades Ɔman Prama nye nea edzi kan a wɔbɔɔ no dɛ wɔdze bɛbɔ abɔdze a nkwa wom a ɔyɛ mmerɛw ho ban. Everglades yɛ nsutsen nye kwae ahorow a asubɔntsen bi a ɔkyɛn akwansin 0.25 (kilomita 0.40) da biara fir Ɔtare Okeechobee mu, anafo fam atɔe kɔ Florida Bay no ma wonya aduan. Abɔntsen do atrae no nye bea a ɔho hia kyɛn biara a nnomaa a wɔwom wɔ ɔhyew mu no wo wɔ Amerika Atsifi fam na ɔwɔ mangrove abɔdze a nkwa wom a ɔsõ kyɛn biara wɔ Atɔe Fam no. Nnomaa ahorow 36 a hɔn ho yɛ hu anaadɛ hɔn abɔ hɔn ho ban na wɔtse abɔntsen do atrae hɔ, a Florida panther, Amerika akokɔsrade, na West Indian manatsee ka ho, na nnomaa ahorow 350, mpataa ahorow 300 a wɔyɛ nkyene nsu mu mpataa ahorow 300, mmoa ahorow 40 a wɔnom nufusu, na nnomaa ahorow 50 mmoa a wɔwea fam. South Florida nsu pa dodo no ara a wɔkora do wɔ Biscayne Aquifer no, wɔsan dze gu abɔntsen do.

Nyimpa dze mfe mpempem pii atra Everglades anaa nye mpɔtam. Nhyehyɛe ahorow sɔr wɔ 1882 mu dɛ wɔbɛma nsu a ɔwɔ nsutsen no mu no na hɔn ayɛ asase no dze ayɛ kua na atrae. Ber a afeha a ɔtɔ do 20 no kɔɔ do no, wɔhwɛɛ nsu a ofi Ɔtare Okeechobee mu no do kɛse na hɔn danyee no sɛnea ɔbɛyɛ a ɔbetumi etumi anyin kɛse wɔ Miami kuropɔn no mu. Wɔdze abɔntsen do atrae no sii hɔ wɔ 1934 mu, dɛ wɔdze bɛbɔ Everglades a ɔyerae ntsɛmtsɛm no ho ban, na wohyiraa do wɔ 1947 mu, ber a wofir ase reyɛ nsutsen a wosisi wɔ South Florida nyinaa no. Abɔdze a nkwa wom a ɔwɔ Everglades Ɔman Prama no ehu amanye kɛse esian nyimpa dwumadzi ntsi, na Everglades a wɔbɛsan asiesie no yɛ asɛm a ɔfa amanyɛsɛm ho wɔ South Florida.

Asase Ho Nsɛm[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Prama No Kwankyerɛdze(Park Map)

Everglades Ɔman Prama no yɛ acre 1,508,976 (2,357.8 sq mi; 6,106.6 km2), wɔ Dade, Monroe, na Collier mantsam mu nyinara wɔ Florida, wɔ Atlantic mpoano asasetaw no anafo fam ano. Mprɛn pii no, bea a ɔkorɔn no fi po no do fi anammɔn 0 kosi 8 (mita 2.4), nanso akoradze bi a Calusa sii wɔ Gulf Mpoano no kɔ sor kyɛn po no anammɔn 20 (mita 6.1).

Asase Ho Adzesua[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

South Florida asase no yɛ petee kakra na ɔyɛ petee ber nyinara. Limestone a ɛwɔ Everglades no ase no yɛ ade titiriw wɔ abɔde a nkwa wom ahorow a ɛwɔ abɔnten so atrae no mu no mu. Ber bi na Florida yɛ Afrika asasepɔn kɛse Gondwana no fã no fã. Ber a ɔtsetsew mu akyi no, tsebea horow no maa po mu ndzɛmba a etwa hɛn ho ehyia a emu nnɔ no tumi dze calcium carbonate guu anhwea, akoradze, na akoradze mu ma ɔdan limestone. Ndzɛmba ɔma nketsenketse a ɔyɛ akoradze, anhwea, na bryozoans miaa do wɔ ntoatoado pii do yɛɛ ndzɛmba wɔ limestone a hɔn frɛ no ooids no mu, na ɔmaa tsebea horow a ɔtumi fa mu bae a ɔkura nsuo mu.

Florida supɔw no puei wɔ po do wɔ mfe 100,000 kosi 150,000 a etwam ni. Ber a ɔpo mu nsu kɔɔ sor wɔ Wisconsin nsukyen ber no awiei no, ɔtse dɛ nea nsu no bɛn asase no. Ɔtare Okeechobee fir ase yir faa, na ɔdze aprannaa a ɔma anyinyam ahoɔdzen bae. Peat pii a ɔwɔ Ɔtare Okeechobee anafo fam no kyerɛ dɛ na nsuyir ba daa bɛyɛ mfe 5,000 a etwam ni. Afifidze fir ase tu kɔɔ mbea foforo, nea ɔwɔ mbea a nsu tɔ na owia bɔ kɛse no fir Florida atsifi fam, na mbea a nsu tɔ na owia bɔ kɛse no dze nnomaa a wofir nsupɔw a ɔwɔ Caribbean no do kɔe dɛ aba. Ɔtse dɛ nea limestone pon no yɛ tratraa, nanso ɔkɔ soro kakra—a wɔfrɛ no pinnacles—na ndzɛmba a ɔkɔ fam a nsu no mu acid a ɔma limestone no sɛe no dze ba. Ber dodo a nsu tra bea bi wɔ Everglades wɔ afe no mu nyinara no na ɔkyerɛ asase ko a ɔwɔ Everglades no mu ebien pɛ: peat, a afifidze mu ndzɛmba a ɔporɔw mfe pii dze bae, na marl, a efi dzea ayow mu ba periphyton, anaadɛ atɛkyɛ na mmoawa nketsenketse asinasin a ɔma atsɛkyɛ yɛ fitaa. Mprɛn pii no, peat na ɔkata Everglades no afã horow a nsu tɔ gu do bɛbor asram ekron wɔ afe no mu no do. Mbea a nsu yir fa do asram esia anaa dzea ennu saa no, marl kata do. Afifidze akuw no gyina asase ko a ɔwɔ nye nsu dodo a ɔwɔ mu do na ɔkyerɛ.

Wimu Tsebea[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Sɛnea Köppen wimu tsebea ho nhyehyɛe kyerɛ no, Royal Palm a ɔwɔ Everglades Ɔman Prama no wɔ wim tsebea a nsu tɔ na owia bɔ kɛse (Am). Ahohuru ber tsentsen, ɔyɛ hyew, na ɔyɛ nsu kɛse na awɔw ber mu yɛ hyew na ɔhɔ yɛ kusuu.

Climate data for Royal Palm Ranger Station, Florida, 1991-2020 normals, extremes 1949-present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 92

(33)

97

(36)

101

(38)

102

(39)

107

(42)

104

(40)

102

(39)

103

(39)

105

(41)

106

(41)

99

(37)

95

(35)

107

(42)

Average high °F (°C) 78.0

(25.6)

80.9

(27.2)

83.3

(28.5)

86.4

(30.2)

89.4

(31.9)

91.1

(32.8)

92.5

(33.6)

92.6

(33.7)

91.3

(32.9)

88.0

(31.1)

83.2

(28.4)

80.0

(26.7)

86.4

(30.2)

Daily mean °F (°C) 66.6

(19.2)

68.7

(20.4)

70.7

(21.5)

74.2

(23.4)

78.0

(25.6)

81.6

(27.6)

83.0

(28.3)

83.5

(28.6)

82.8

(28.2)

79.4

(26.3)

73.5

(23.1)

69.3

(20.7)

75.9

(24.4)

Average low °F (°C) 55.1

(12.8)

56.5

(13.6)

58.0

(14.4)

62.0

(16.7)

66.6

(19.2)

72.0

(22.2)

73.5

(23.1)

74.3

(23.5)

74.2

(23.4)

70.9

(21.6)

63.8

(17.7)

58.6

(14.8)

65.5

(18.6)

Record low °F (°C) 24

(−4)

29

(−2)

31

(−1)

37

(3)

49

(9)

50

(10)

66

(19)

66

(19)

64

(18)

49

(9)

31

(−1)

27

(−3)

24

(−4)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.70

(43)

1.82

(46)

1.93

(49)

2.85

(72)

5.84

(148)

9.00

(229)

6.82

(173)

8.57

(218)

9.01

(229)

5.55

(141)

2.39

(61)

1.88

(48)

57.36

(1,457)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.6 6.5 6.7 6.3 10.9 17.2 17.2 19.2 18.3 12.6 7.8 6.6 135.9
Source: NOAA

Nsu Ho Nsɛm[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Ber a wɔtaa yɛ wɔ Florida atsifi fam no, nsutsen biara nnyi hɔ a ɔwɔ asase ase a ɔma nsu kɔ Everglades nhyehyɛe no mu. Asase ase atare bi a wɔfrɛ no Floridan aquifer no da bɛyɛ anammɔn 1,000 (mita 300) wɔ South Florida ase. Everglades no wɔ tumi kɛse a ɔdze nsu gu mu, esian limestone a ɔtumi fa mu wɔ asase a ɔda adzi no ase ntsi. Nsu dodo no ara ba wɔ ɔkwan a nsu tɔ do, na wɔkora dodo kɛse bi do wɔ limestone no mu. Nsu a ɔrewor do fir Everglades no dan nsu a ɔtɔ gu nkurow akɛse mu, na ɔma ɔmantsam no nya nsu pa. Nsu nso sen kɔ abɔntsen do ber a ɔtɔ dɛ nsu wɔ atsifi fam kɔ Kissimmee Asubɔntsen no nsu a ɔsen na Ɔtare Okeechobee mbea afoforo no do akyi, na ɔbɛda edzi wɔ Everglades nna bi akyi. Nsuo fa Ɔtare Okeechobee mu kɔ asubɔntsen bi a nye tsɛtrɛtsɛ yɛ akwansin 64 kɔsi 113 mu, na ɔkame ayɛ dɛ ɔtu a obiara ntumi nhunu.

Ndzɛmba a Etwa Hɛn Ho Ehyia[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Wɔ afeha a ɔto do duabien(20) no ahyɛse no, na adwen a wɔtaa dze dzi edwuma wɔ dzea ɔsɛ dɛ wɔbɔ ho ban wɔ ɔman no mmɔntsen do atrae ahorow ho no yɛ asase ho ndzɛmba a ɔyɛ hu tse dɛ mbepɔw, nsu a ɔtɔ gu fam, anaa abon mu ber nyinara. Ber a nyimpa dodo a wɔwɔ Florida fir ase dɔɔso kɛse na wɔyɛɛ nkurow akɛse a ɔbɛn Everglades no, na ɔyɛ dzen ma hɔn a wɔtaa abɔntsen do atrae no a wɔbɛhyehyɛ no akyi no dɛ wɔbɛma aban a ɔwɔ ɔman no mu na Floridafo no agye edzi dɛ abɔdze a nkwa wom a ɔyɛ anyifɛr na ɔsakra ber nyinara wɔ Everglades no fata dɛ wɔbɔ ho ban saa ara. Ber a wɔdze abɔntsen do atrae no sii hɔ wɔ 1947 mu no, ɔbɛyɛɛ bea a odzi kan wɔ U.S. mu a ɔbɔ afifidze na mmoa a ɔwɔ ɔmantsem bi mu ho ban a ɔnye asase ho mfonin ahorow bɔ abira. Ɔman Mmoa Prama Dwumadzibea no gye abɔdze a nkwa wom ahorow akron a ɔsono emu biara a egyina hɔn ho hɔn ho do wɔ abɔntsen do atrae no mu a ɔsakra ber nyinara esian nsu dodo a ɔwɔ hɔ na ndzɛmba afoforo a etwa hɛn ho ehyia ntsi no tom.

Nsu pa a ɔyɛ sloughs na marl prairies[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Alligators thrive in freshwater sloughs and marl prairies.

Ebia nsu pa mu sloughs ne abɔde a nkwa wom a wɔtaa de bata Everglades National Park ho. Saa nsu a ɛkɔ nsu no mu yi yɛ mmeae a ɛba fam a nsu pa akata so, na ɛkame ayɛ sɛ ɛsen anammɔn 100 (mita 30) a wontumi nhu da biara. Shark Asubɔnten Slough ne Taylor Slough yɛ nneɛma atitiriw a ɛwɔ abɔnten so atrae no mu. Sawgrass a enyin kodu anammɔn 6 (mita 1.8) anaa nea ɛboro saa, ne atɛkyɛ afifide a nhaban trɛw, da nsow wɔ saa ɔmantam yi mu araa ma wɔmaa Everglades no abodin "Sare Asubɔnten", a wɔde sii hɔ wɔ ɔmanfo adwene mu wɔ asɛmti no mu ma Marjory Stoneman Douglas nhoma (1947), a ɛde mfe pii a ɔde gyinaa akyi sɛ obebu Everglades abɔde a nkwa wom nhyehyɛe no sɛ ɛboro "atɛkyɛ" so no baa awiei. Mmeae a eye kyɛn so a nnomaa didi, sloughs a ɛwɔ Everglades no twetwe waders ahorow pii te sɛ akɔre, egrets, roseate spoonbills (Platalea ajaja), ibises ne brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), ne limpkins (Aramus guarauna) ne snail kites a di apɔw-mu-teɛteɛ nwansena, na ɛno nso di saw sare no. Mpataa, mmoa a wɔte nsu mu, ne nnomaa nketewa a sloughs no wɔ no twetwe nsu pa mu mpɔtorɔ ahorow, akraman (Alligator mississippiensis), nsu mu moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti), ne apuei fam diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus).

A great blue heron along the Anhinga Trail

Nsu pa mu marl prairies te sɛ sloughs nanso nsu a ɛwɔ soro no ntumi nkɔ brɛoo; mmom no, nsu fa atɛkyɛ bi a ɛyɛ calcitic a wɔfrɛ no marl mu. Algae ne mmoawa nketenkete afoforo na ɛyɛ periphyton, na ɛbata limestone ho. Sɛ ɛyow a ɛdan atɛkyɛ a ɛyɛ fitaa. Sawgrass ne nsu mu afifide afoforo nyin tiaa wɔ nsu pa mu marl mu sen sɛnea ɛte wɔ peat mu, asase foforo a ɛwɔ Everglades a wohu wɔ baabi a nsu kɔ so tra hɔ kyɛ afe mũ no nyinaa. Marl prairies taa tra nsu ase fi asram abiɛsa kosi ason wɔ afe no mu, bere a ebia sloughs bɛkɔ so akɔ nsu ase akyɛ sen asram akron na ɛtɔ mmere bi a ɛbɛtra nsu ase fi afe biako kosi afe a edi hɔ no. Ebia sawgrass bedi sloughs so, na ama wɔayɛ monoculture. Wobetumi ahu sare afoforo te sɛ muhly sare (Muhlenbergia sericea) ne nsu mu afifide a nhaban trɛw wɔ marl prairies. Mmoa a wɔte nsu pa a ɛwɔ nsu pa mu no nso te marl prairies. Ebia marl prairies bɛyow wɔ afe no mmeae bi; akraman di dwuma titiriw wɔ nkwa a ɛkɔ so tra Everglades mmeae a ɛwɔ akyirikyiri no mu denam atɛkyɛ a wotutu mu wɔ ɔpɛ bere mu no so, na ɛma nsu atare a mpataa ne mmoa a wɔte nsu mu no tra ase fi afe biako kosi afe a edi hɔ no so. Alligator ntokuru nso twetwe mmoa afoforo a wohyiam di mmoa nketewa a wɔkyere wɔn we no. Sɛ ɔmantam no san yiri bio wɔ osutɔ bere mu a, mpataa ne mmoa a wɔte nsu mu a wɔtraa ase wɔ alligator ntokuru no mu no afei san tra nsu pa mu marl prairies.

Ndua a ɔyɛ dzen a wɔdze yɛ hammocks a ɔwɔ mbea a nsu tɔ na owia bɔ kɛse[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Mprɛn pii no, hammocks nkutoo nye asase a ɔso yɛ kusuu wɔ abɔntsen so atrae no mu. Wɔforo kɔ soro nsateakwaa pii wɔ asubɔnten a sare akata so no so, na afifide ahorow a ɛwɔ hɔ a nnua a ɛwɔ ɔhyew mu ne mmeae a osu tɔ na owia bɔ kɛse te sɛ kesee fam oak akɛse a ɛte ase (Quercus virginiana) na ɛwɔ hɔ. Nnua taa yɛ nkatanim a mmoa nyin wɔ wuram kɔfe (Psychotria), indigoberry fitaa (Randia aculeata), awuduru nnua (Metopium toxiferum) ne saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) nnua a wɔde ayɛ nnua a ɛyɛ mmerɛw mu. Nnua nsupɔw yi mpempem pii wɔ abɔnten so atrae no mu wɔ sloughs ntam—a ɛtaa yɛ te sɛ nusu bere a wofi soro hwɛ no (hwɛ abɔnten so asase mfonini) esiane nsu a ɛrekɔ so nkakrankakra atwa ho ahyia nti—nanso wobetumi ahu wɔ pineland ne mangrove nso mu. Nnua a ɛwɔ Everglades, a wuram tamarind (Lysiloma latisiliquum) ne gumbo-limbo (Bursera simaruba) ka ho, ntaa nyini nkɔ soro nsen anammɔn 50 (mita 15) esiane mframa, ogya, ne wim tebea nti.

About 160 Florida panthers inhabit hammocks and pinelands of the Everglades.

Ɔkame ayɛ dɛ afifidze a enyin a atwa hammock no ase no ho ahyia no yɛ nea wontumi nkɔ mu; wɔ canopy hammocks no ase no yɛ beae a eye ma mmoa atra. Mmoa a wɔwea fam (te sɛ ɔwɔ ne anole ahorow) ne mmoa a wɔte nsu mu (te sɛ Amerika dua ɔkɔre a ɛyɛ ahabammono, Hyla cinerea), te nnua a ɛyɛ den a wɔde yɛ hammocks no mu. Nnomaa te sɛ barred owls (Strix varia), woodpeckers, atifi fam cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), ne anafo fam akɔre a wɔn ti nhwi ayɛ fitaa (Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus) yɛ berebuw wɔ hammock nnua mu. Mmoa ahorow a wɔnom nufusu a wɔte nnua a ɛyɛ den mu no bi ne Florida asono tuntum (Ursus americanus floridanus), akraman kɔkɔɔ (Vulpes vulpes), minks (Neogale vison), atɛkyɛ mu kraman (Sylvilagus palustris), akraman a wɔn ho yɛ fitaa (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), akraman a wɔn dua yɛ fitaa (Odocoileus virginianus ), ne Florida panther (Puma concolor couguar) a wɔn ho yɛ na a ɛwɔ asiane kɛse mu.

Abrɔbɛ asaase[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Sunrise on the pine rocklands on Long Pine Key Nature Trail

Ber bi na ɔwɔ pine abotan kwae a ne kɛse yɛ acre 186,000 (290.6 sq mi; 752.7 km2) akata Miami-Dade Mantam no so, nanso nnua adwumayɛfo na etwa ne fã kɛse no ara. Pineland abɔdze a nkwa wom (anaasɛ pine abotan) no yɛ nea anhweatam a emu nnɔ na ɛyɛ nwunu a ɛwɔ limestone ase a ɛkame ayɛ sɛ slash pines (Pinus elliottii var. densa) nkutoo na ɛkata so no so. Nnua a ɛwɔ saa abɔdeɛ a nkwa wom yi mu no nyin wɔ solution holes mu, baabi a limestone a ɛyɛ mmerɛw no asɛe na asase ahyɛ mu ma, na ama afifide atumi agye mu. Pineland ahorow no hia sɛ wɔde ogya siesie hɔ daa na ama wɔahwɛ ahu sɛ ɛwɔ hɔ. Wɔayɛ South Florida slash pines no wɔ ɔkwan soronko so sɛnea ɛbɛyɛ a ogya bɛkɔ so denam pine nnade a ayow pii a wɔtow gu ne ne nnua a ayow a wɔtow gu so. Pine nnua hia ɔhyew fi ogya mu ansa na abue, na ɛma aba no tumi pete na ɔkyere. Slash pine dua ne ne ntini yɛ nea ogya ntumi nhyew. Ɔhyew a wɔakyerɛw ama wɔ mmeae yi no kɔ do mfe abiɛsa kosi ason biara; sɛ ogya ntɔ daa a, nnua a ɛyɛ den fi ase nyin wɔ saa ɔmantam yi mu, na wɔsan kyekyɛ pine nsase mu sɛ atɛkyɛ kwae a wɔadi afra. Afifide dodow no ara a ɛwɔ mpɔtam hɔ no fifi bɛyɛ adapɛn 16 wɔ ogya akyi. Ɛkame ayɛ sɛ pine nsase nyinaa wɔ mmɛ nnua a ɛwɔ fam ne wuram nhabannuru ahorow a ɛkata so wɔ fam.

Wobu pine abotan so nsase sɛ ɛyɛ mmeae a asiane wɔ hɔ sen biara wɔ Florida no mu biako; pineland a ennu acre 4,000 (6.3 sq mi; 16.2 km2) na ɛwɔ abɔnten so atrae no akyi. Wɔ abɔnten so atrae no mu no, wɔabɔ pine asase a ɛyɛ acre 20,000 (31.3 sq mi; 80.9 km2) ho ban. Mmoa ahorow ahorow di wɔn ahiade ahorow ho dwuma wɔ aduan, dabere, berebuw, ne rooking wɔ pine abotan so. Nnua a wɔfrɛ no woodpeckers, apuei fam nnomaa a wɔfrɛ wɔn meadowlarks (Sturnella magna), loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus), grackles, ne atifi fam nnomaa a wɔyɛ fɛwdifo (Mimus polyglottos) taa wɔ pine nsase so. Asono tuntum ne Florida panthers nso te saa atrae yi.

Cypress na mangrove[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Alligator in a cypress dome

Cypress ndua yɛ ndua a wɔfrɛ no conifers a hɔn ayɛ no sɛnea ɔbɛyɛ a ɔbɛtra nsu pa a egyina hɔ mu. Wonyin wɔ adan nketewa a wɔfrɛ no cypress domes mu ne nhama atenten a ɛwɔ limestone so. Ebia nsu dodow bɛsakra kɛse wɔ cypress dome ne nhama ho, enti cypress nya "nkotodwe" a epue fi nsu no mu wɔ dodow a ɛkɔ soro mu ma ɛma ntini no nya mframa pa. Nnua nketewa a wɔfrɛ no cypress no nyin wɔ mmeae a ɛhɔ yɛ kusuu a asase no nyɛ papa. Epiphytes te sɛ bromeliads, Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), orchids ne ferns nyin wɔ cypress nnua nkorabata ne ne ntini so. Everglades National Park no wɔ orchid ahorow aduonu anum.[36] Kypress nnua atenten ma nnomaa nya mmeae pa a nnomaa yɛ wɔn berebuw a wuram akokɔsrade (Meleagris gallopavo), ibis, akɔre, akɔre, anhingas (Anhinga anhinga), ne belted kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) ka ho. Mmoa a wɔnom nufusu a wɔwɔ cypress mpɔtam hɔ no bi ne akraman a wɔn dua yɛ fitaa, akraman, akraman, opossums, skunks, atɛkyɛ mu kraman, asubɔnten mu akraman (Lontra canadensis), ne bobcats, ne mpɔtorɔ nketewa nso.[37][38]

Mangrove nnua kata South Florida mpoano so, na ɛtɔ mmere bi a enyin wɔ asase no mu a egyina nkyene nsu dodow a ɛwɔ Everglades abɔde a nkwa wom mu no so. Wɔ mfe a osu tɔ kɛse mu bere a nsu pa kakraa bi na ɛsen kɔ mpoano no, mangrove bɛda adi wɔ nsu pa afifide mu. Sɛ osu tɔ pii a, wobetumi ahu saw sare ne nsu pa mu afifide afoforo a ɛbɛn mpoano no. Wobetumi ahu mangrove nnua ahorow abiɛsa—kɔkɔɔ (Rhizophora mangle), tuntum (Avicennia germinans), ne fitaa (Laguncularia racemosa)—wɔ Everglades. Esiane sɛ mangrove nnua tumi gyina nkyene nsu, mframa, asorɔkye a ano yɛ den, ɔhyew a ano yɛ den, ne asase a atɛkyɛ wom ano kɛse nti, ɛyɛ soronko wɔ tebea horow a emu yɛ den mu. Wɔyɛ adwuma sɛ mmeae a wɔhwɛ po mu ne nnomaa ahorow pii. Wɔsan nso ne Florida ahobammɔ a edi kan a ɛko tia ahum tumi a ɛsɛe ade, a ɛtwetwe nsuyiri nsu na esiw mpoano nsu a ɛtɔ gu fam no ano.[39] Mangrove nhyehyɛe a ɛwɔ Everglades National Park no ne mangrove nhyehyɛe a ɛkɔ so yɛ kɛse sen biara wɔ wiase.[40]

Manatee te nsu a emu nnɔ atwa mangrove ho ahyia.

Manatees inhabit shallow water around mangroves.

Wɔ Florida mangrove nhyehyɛe ahorow no mu no mpataa ahorow 220 na ɛwɔ hɔ, ne krak ahorow, krak, mpataa, nwansena, ne mmoa afoforo a wonni akyi berɛmo, a ɛyɛ aduan titiriw ma nnomaa pii.[41] Nnomaa ahorow du du pii de mangrove di dwuma sɛ mmeae a wɔhwɛ wɔn ne nnuan a wɔtɔn, a nea ɛka ho ne pelicans, grebes, akɔre a wɔn kɔla yɛ abiɛsa (Egretta tricolor), gulls, terns, hawks ne kites, ne nnomaa a wɔte nnua so te sɛ mangrove cuckoos (Coccyzus minor), yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia), . ne mmorɔnoma a wɔn abotiri yɛ fitaa (Patagioenas leucocephala).[42] Mangrove no nso boa mmoa a wɔte nsu mu ne mmoa a wɔwea fam ahorow 24, ne mmoa ahorow 18 a wɔnom nufu, a nea ɛka ho ne mpɔtorɔ a ɛyɛ ahabammono a ɛreyera (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill mpɔtorɔ (Eretmochelys imbricata), ne West India manatee (Trichechus manatus).

Mpoano nsaase a ɔwɔ fam[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Mpoano asasetaw, anaa pradada a ɛso yɛ nsu no yɛ nkyene nsu atɛkyɛ a ɛtwe po mu nsu bere a ɛkɔ soro anaasɛ nsu pa bere a osu tɔ kɛse no. Nsuyiri ba wɔ ahum ne ɔhyew mu ahum a ɛretu bere a ɛpo mu nsu tumi kɔ soro anammɔn pii wɔ asase no so no. Nsu a ɛtɔ kɛse nso de nsuyiri ba bere a osu fi atifi fam sen kɔ Everglades no. Nnua kakraa bi na ebetumi atra ase wɔ tebea a ɛwɔ ɔmantam yi mu no mu, nanso afifide—nnua a ɛyɛ dɛ te sɛ saltwort ne glasswort—tumi gyina nkyene, nsu a ɛyɛ nkyene, ne anhweatam so tebea horow ano. Mmoa a wɔwɔ saa beae yi gyina nsu dodow a ɛwɔ hɔ no so, nanso mmoa a wɔtaa hu wɔn no bi ne Cape Sable po so akɔre (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), Everglades ntontom akɔre (Rostrhamus sociabilis), dua mu akɔre (Mycteria americana), apuei fam indigo ɔwɔ (Drymarchon couperi ), ne mmoa nketewa a wɔnom nufusu te sɛ mpɔtorɔ, mprako, ne kraman.

Po do na asubɔntsen no ano[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Mangroves reduce coastal erosion and shelter wildlife.

Nsu kɛse a ɛwɔ abɔnten so atrae no mu ne Florida Bay, a efi mangrove atɛkyɛ a ɛwɔ asase kɛse no kesee fam ano kosi Florida Keys no. Po mu abɔde a nkwa wom bɛboro akwansin 800 ahinanan (2,100 km2) da saa beae yi. Coral, sponge, ne po mu sare yɛ dabere ne aduan ma crustaceans ne mollusks, na ɛno nso ne aduan titiriw a ɛpo mu mmoa akɛse nya. Shark, stingrays, ne barracuda nso te saa abɔde a nkwa wom yi mu. Nnomaa a wɔfrɛ wɔn Pelicans, mpoano nnomaa, terns, ne black skimmers (Rynchops niger) ka nnomaa a wɔtaa kɔ abɔnten so mpoano no ho.[46] Bay no nso wɔ n’ankasa bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) a wɔte hɔ.

Anhweatam a ɛyɛ mpataa pii a wɔde gye wɔn ani ma snook (Centropomus undecimalis), mpataa kɔkɔɔ (Sciaenops ocellatus), po mu mpataa a wɔn ho yɛ nsensanee (Cynoscion nebulosus), tarpon (Megaflops atlanticus), mpataa a wɔwɔ nnompe (Albula vulpes), ne tumi krataa no abubu po no ano nsu pii no mu (Trichinous falcatus),[48] ne snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), ne akraman a wɔfrɛ wɔn bass.[49] Nnomaa a wɔretu mmirika te sɛ roseate spoonbills (Platalea ajaja), reddish egrets (Egretta rufescens), ne great white herons (Ardea herodias occidentalis) wɔ nnipa nketewa soronko a wɔn mu dodow no ara yɛ Florida Bay nkutoo.[50] Nnomaa ahorow afoforo bi ne akɔre a wɔn ti nhwi ayɛ fitaa, akraman a wɔfrɛ wɔn cormorants, ne ospreys. Mmoa a wɔnom nufusu wɔ mpoano hɔ no bi ne raccoons, opossums, bobcats, ne fox squirrels.