Chan Chan

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Chan Chan
archaeological site, capital city
Inception850 Sesa mu
Native labelChan Chan Sesa mu
CultureChimú culture Sesa mu
CountryPeru Sesa mu
Capital ofChimor, Chimú culture Sesa mu
Located in the administrative territorial entityTrujillo, La Libertad Department, Trujillo province Sesa mu
LocationHuanchaco Sesa mu
Coordinate location8°6′38″S 79°4′30″W Sesa mu
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger Sesa mu
Heritage designationWorld Heritage Site, cultural heritage of Peru Sesa mu
Official websitehttp://www.chanchan.gob.pe Sesa mu
World Heritage criteriaWorld Heritage selection criterion (i), World Heritage selection criterion (iii) Sesa mu
Map

Chan Chan yɛ kurow a ɔso kyɛn biara wɔ Amerika Kesee Fam ber a na ɔwɔ hɔ ansa na Colombia reba no. Mprempren ɔyɛ bea a wotutu fam hwehwɛ tsetsefo ndzɛmba mu wɔ La Libertad Mantam mu a ɔwɔ Trujillo, Peru, atɔe fam kilomita 5 (akwansin 3.1).

Chan Chan wɔ Moche Bon no ano na na ɔyɛ Chimorfo abakɔsɛm mu ahemman no ahenkurow fir 900 kosi 1470, ber a wodzii nkogu na wɔdze hɔn kaa Inca Ahemman no ho no. Chimor, ɔman a edzii nkonyim no, nyaa nkɔdo fir Chimú amammerɛ a ɔdze nye ho sii hɔ wɔ Peru mpoano bɛyɛ afe 900 Y.B.

Chan Chan wɔ Peru atsifi fam mpoano anhweatam no fa bi a ɔhɔ yɛ kusuu tsitsir. Esiane dɛ nsu ntɔ wɔ saa bea yi ntsi, nsu a ɛnyɛ nkyene fibea tsitsir ma Chan Chan na nsubɔntsen a ɔdze nsu a ɔsen fa asase ani fir Andes no mu. Saa nsu a ɔsen yi ma wotumi dzi asase na nsu do denam nsu a wɔdze gugu nnɔbae do.

Chan Chan kuropɔn no tsentsen yɛ kilomita 20 na na ɔwɔ kurow no finimfin a ɔyɛ dzen a nye kɛse yɛ kilomita 6 a na ciudadelas a ɔyɛ nwonwa wom. Ná Ciudadelas yɛ adansi ho adwinni akɛse a na ɔwɔ abɔntsen do, adekoradan ahorow, na ahemfiefo amusiei ahorow. Saa ciudadelas yi anuonyam no kyerɛ dɛ wɔnye adehye kuw no wɔ abusuabɔ. Wɔnyim adan a wɔdze ma Chan Chan fankuw a ɔwɔ sor no mu nnyimpa a wɔba fam no dɛ adan nketsewa a wɔdze ahyɛ mu a ɔnyɛ daa (SIARs). Esiane dɛ na nnyimpa a wɔba fam no taa yɛ nsaanodwumayɛfo a na hɔn dwumadzi wɔ ahemman no mu nye dɛ wɔbɛyɛ nsaanodwuma ntsi, wɔdze saa SIAR ahorow yi mu pii dzii dwuma dɛ edwumayɛbea ahorow.

Wɔdze "Mfonini 1: Chan Chan Fam Atutuw Bea" a efi Michael West asɛm, "Community Settlement Patterns a ɔwɔ Chan Chan, Peru" mu na ɔkyerɛɛ nsusuwii ahorow a wɔpaw wɔ nifa do maa bea a Chan Chan wɔ no. Wɔ saa mfonin yi mu no, wobetumi ahu dɛ Verlarde, Laberinto, na Bandelier na ɔyɛ Chan Chan atsifi fam hye ber a Uhle, Chaiguac, Tschudi, na Rivero na ɔyɛ n’anafo fam afa horow no. Bea a wɔpaw dɛ wɔmfa nyɛ nsɛm a wɔde hyɛ mu no wɔ nkurow yi finimfin na entsi egyina hɔ ma bea tsitsiriw a Chan Chan amamfõ wɔ saa fam tutu bea yi finimfin.

Nsɛmfua Mfiase Na Abakɔsɛm Ho Adesua[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Ebia edzin no fir Quingnam "Jiang" anaa dɛ "Chang" a ɔkyerɛ dɛ Owia, a Chan-Chan bɛyɛ ankasa: Owia-Owia. Wɔkyerɛ dɛ nye ntsease ankasa bɛyɛ: Owia kɛse, Owia a ɔhyerɛn, owia a ɔyɛ fɛw anaa owia a ɔhyerɛn (ɔsiane dɛ Quingnam kasa no fa tsitsir nye dɛ asɛmfua bi a wɔtew do no nya ntsease foforo ntsi). Nsusuwii foforo ka dɛ na edzin no benya afi asɛmfua no mu: Shian anaa Sian. "Shi" nne no kyerɛ ase dɛ Ɔsram na "An" kyerɛ ase dɛ ofie, a ɔkyerɛ Ɔsram Fie, a ɔma wohu ɔɛ Ɔsram no nye onyame tsitsir.

Abakɔsɛm Tsiawa[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Wogye dzi dɛ Chimúfo na wosii Chan Chan bɛyɛ afe 850 A.D. Na ɔyɛ Chimor ahemman no ahenkurow a wobu akontsaa dɛ nyimpa dodo yɛ 40,000–60,000.

Ber a Incafo dii Chimúfo do nkonyim bɛyɛ afe 1470 A.D. akyi no, Chan Chan hwee ase. Wɔ afe 1535 A.D. mu no, Francisco Pizarro hyehyɛɛ Spain kuropɔn Trujillo a ɔpiaa Chan Chan kɔɔ sunsuma mu bio. Ber a na ɔnyɛ ahenkurow a nyimpa ahyɛ mu ma bio no, na Chan Chan da do ara nyim no yiye wɔ n’ahonyadze kɛse no ho na nea efii mu bae nye dɛ Spainfo fow no. Wohu Chimú ahonyadze kɛse no ho sɛnkyerɛnnye bi wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do duɛsia mu ndzɛmba a wɔfow fir ɔboda bi a wosie mu wɔ Chan Chan no dzin mu; wogyee ademudze bi a ɔnye sika kɔkɔɔ peso 80,000 yɛ pɛ (ɔkame ayɛ dɛ sika kɔkɔɔ dɔla 5,000,000 U.S. dɔla).

Wɔ afe 1969 mu no, Michael Moseley na Carol J. Mackey fir ase tutuu Chan Chan; ɔnnɛ saa fam tutu yi kɔ do wɔ Peru Instituto Nacional de Cultura ase.

Nhyehyɛ a Wɔdze Bɛkora Ndzɛmba Do[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Wɔ afe 1998 mu no, Freedom National Culture Institute of Peru na ɔyɛɛ "Master Plan for Conservation and Management of the Chan Chan Archeological Complex" a Wiadze Agyapadze Fapem – WHR, ICCROM, na GCI dze ntoboa maeɛ. Peru Aban no pen nhyehyɛw no do. Akwan a wɔfa do kora do no bi nye dɛ wɔbɛhyɛ adan atsitsir na Tschudi Ahemfie no ho nhyehyɛ ahorow mu dzen na hɔn ama ayɛ dzen, dzenam atsetsesɛm na nnɛyi mfiridwuma ho akwan horow a wɔdze afrafra do. Mprempren Chan Chan wɔ nsɛntsitsir 46 a ɔsɛe adze kɛse, ɔwom dɛ bea no sɛe nyinara boro saa nsɛntsitsir yi do koraa dze. La Libertad ɔmantam aban no dze sika reboa mmɔdzen a wɔbɔ dɛ wɔbɛkora ndzɛmba do wɔ mmea yi.

UNESCO Wiadze Agyapadze Bea[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Wɔ 28 Ɔberɛfɛw 1986 mu no, UNESCO paw Chan Chan dɛ Wiadze Agyapadze Bea na ɔsan nso dze too Wiadze Agyapadze a ɔwɔ esiane mu kyerɛwtohɔ no mu. Nea ɔka Wiadze Agyapadze Boayikuw no nyansahyɛ ahorow a edzi kan no ho nye dɛ wɔbɛyɛ ndzɛmba a ɔfata a wɔbɛkora do, asan asiesie, na hɔn ahwɛ do; a wobegyae fam tutu biara a na ɔnnyi ndzɛmba a wɔdze bɛkora do a ɔka ho; na ndzɛmba a wɔfow do a wɔbɛtew do. Pan-American Adesua a ɔfa Asase do ndzɛmba na Fam Atutuw Agyapadze a Wɔkora do nye nea wɔhwɛ do ho no, asoɛ ahorow pii a hɔn aka abom, a ICCROM, Getty Conservation Institute, na Peru Aban ka ho na ɔdze sika mae.

Bea a Wotutu Fam Hwehwɛ Tsetsefo Ndzɛmba Mu[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Afasu a Ɔka Bom Yɛ Kurow Kɛse(Walled Compounds)

Bea a wotutu fam hwehwɛ tsetsefo ndzɛmba mu no kɛse bɛyɛ kilomita 20 ahinanan, na wobu no dɛ ɔyɛ adobe kurow a ɔso sen biara wɔ Amerika na nea ɔtɔ do ebien wɔ wiase.

Adan (ahemfie) a hɔn ato ho afasu a ɔka bom yɛ kurow kɛse no nyi nea edzidzi do yi:

Dzin Dadaw(Old Name) Edzin Foforo(Current name) Nkyerɛase(Meaning)
Chayhuac Chayhuac An anaa Quixmic An Chayhuac Dan (Chayhuac House) anaa (or) Ahyɛse Dan (Beginning House)
Uhle Xllangchic An Dan a Ɔwɔ Apue (East House) anaa Owia Apuei Fie(Sunrise House)
Laberinto Fechech An Dan a Ɔwɔ Atɔe (West House) anaa Owigya(Sunset House)
Gran Chimú Utzh An Dan Kɛse (Big House)
Squier Fochic An Dan a Ɔwɔ Atsifi (North House)
Velarde Ñing An Dan a Ɔwɔ Ɛpo do (Sea House)
Bandelier Ñain An Nnomaa Dan (Birds House)
Tschudi Nik An Dan a Ɔwɔ Finimfin (Center House)
Rivero Chol An Dan Foforo (New House) anaa Dan a Ɔtwa Do (Final House)
Tello Tsuts An Dan Kakraba (Small House)

Ɔfasu a Wɔdze Ayɛ Nik An (Ex Tschudi)[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

"Nik An" a hɔn ato afasu a ɔyɛ dzen no yɛ kɛse kyɛn biara wɔ mfatoho a ɔkyerɛ hia a nsu ho hia, tsitsir po no, na ɔsom a otwa ho ahyia wɔ Chimu c mu no ho. Afasu no ho mfonyin a ɔkorɔn no gyina hɔ ma mpataa, a wɔdze hɔn anyi kyerɛ atsifi na anafo fam (nea wobetumi akyerɛ ase dɛ nsu ebien a ɔhyɛ Peru mpoano agyirae no ho mfonyin: Humboldt dze no, awɔw, a efir anafo fam dzeba na El Niño dze no, a ɔyɛ hyew, a efir atsifi fam dzeba), asorɔkye, rombito (asau a wɔdze yi mpataa), nye pelicans na anzumitos (po mu gyata na po mu abowa a ɔnum nufusu a hɔn edzi afora) nso.

Chimucapac a ɔwɔ tumi no na odzi mpoano ɔman yi do na na tumi a ɔwɔ asetra mu tumidzi a efir ase wɔ hia a ohia dɛ wɔhwɛ nsu no do katsee, na abɔntsen do ahunahuna ahorow no do na ɔka bom. Na "Nik An" a ɔyɛ dzen no wɔ ɔkwan koro a wɔfa do kɔ mu na afasu atsentsen a ɔkɔ sor kodu mita duɛbien ma ɔbɔ ho ban yiye, na na ɔtrɛw wɔ na nnyinaso (mita enum) kyɛn na atsifi (mita koro), dze hwɛ kwan dɛ asasewosow betumi aba wɔ mpoano a ɔdze asasewosow ba no.

Dan Nhyehyɛe[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Chan Chan Misiɔm (Museum of Chan Chan)

Kurow no wɔ ciudadelas edu a hɔn ato ho afasu a na ɔwɔ amannye adan, amusiei adan, asɔredan ahorow, nsukorabea na Chimú ahemfo atrae. Wɔ ciudadelas no akyi no, nnuru afofor a ɔwɔ Chan Chan no bi nye asɛnnyibea ahorow, anaa audencias, adan nketsewa a wɔdze ayɛ a ɔnyɛ daa (SIARs) na nkoko a wɔfrɛ no huacas. Wohu adanse a ɔkyerɛ dɛ saa adan yi ho hia wɔ ayiyɛ mu dɔtse pii a wonya fir Chan Chan hɔ no mu. Ɔte dɛ nea mfonin pii kyerɛ adan a ɔte dɛ audencias a ɔkyerɛ sɛnea adansi ho hia wɔ amambra mu ma Chimúfo a wɔwɔ Chan Chan no. Bio nso, adansi ho ndzɛmba akɛse yi a wosii no kyerɛ dɛ na edwumayɛfo pii wɔ Chan. Eyi foa adanse bio a ɔkyerɛ dɛ ɔmanfo nhyehyɛe a ɔwɔ sorsor wɔ Chan Chan mu efidɛ na ɔbɛyɛ dɛ adwumayɛfo kuw no na wɔyɛɛ saa adansi yi sisii.

Chan Chan yɛ ahinanan, afasu a nye tsentsen yɛ anammɔn 50–60 (mita 15–18) woetwa hɔnho ehyia. Abɔsoɔ biara nnyi hɔ a ɔbue kɔ atsifi fam ɔsandɛ safasuo a ɔhwɛ atsifi fam no na owia bɔ kɛse, na ɔyɛ edwuma dɛ ɔsiw mframa ano na ɔtwe owia hann wɔ baabi a sum taa ba no. Afasu a ɔware kyɛn biara no siw anafo fam atɔe mframa a efir mpoano hɔ no ano. Wɔdze adobe birkisi(adobe bricks) akata afasu no do a wɔdze ɔfasu a ɔyɛ torotor a hɔnayɛ mfonin ahorow a ɔyɛ nwonwa agu do. Ndzɛmba ebien a wɔdze dzi adwini no bi nye nsɛmtsi tse dɛ nnomaa, mpataa, na mmoa nketsewa a wɔnom nufusu ho mfonin a ɔyɛ nokwar, n nsɛmtsi koro no ara ho mfonin a hɔnayɛ no fɛfɛɛfɛ kɛse. Ndzɛmba a hɔn asen wɔ Chan Chan no yɛ krak, mpɔtorɔ, na asau a wɔdze kyere po mu mmoa (tse dɛ Spondylus. Chan Chan, a ɔntse dɛ mpoano amamfõ dodo no ara wɔ Peru no, ɛbɛn Pacific Po no yiye.

Nsuka a Nsu Fa Mu Ma Wɔdze Gugu Nduadzewa Do[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Nsu a Wɔdze Esie (Water Reserve)

Mfiase no na kurow no dze nye ho to abura a emu dɔ bɛyɛ mita 15 so. Nea ɔbɛyɛ na mfuw asase a otwa kurow no ho ehyia no ayɛ kɛse no, wɔyɛɛ nsutsen kɛse bi a ɔdannan nsu fi asubɔntsen Moche no mu. Sɛ wɔdze saa nsutsen yi si hɔ wie a, na kurow no betumi anyin kɛse. Nsuyir a ɔyɛ hu bi sɛee nsutsen a ɔwɔ atsifi fam no pii bɛyɛ afe 1100 Y.B

Nruhunahuna[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Chan Chan, ahenni Chimu no Ahenkurow (Chan Chan, capital of kingdom Chimu)

Chan Chan tsetse adan no wɔ esian mu osian nsakrae a ɔba wim tsebea mu ntsi — nsu kɛse, nsuyir, na mframa a ano yɛ dzen. Tsitsir no, kurow no wɔ esian kɛse mu ɔsian ehum a efir El Niño mu ba ntsi, na ɔma nsu tɔ kɛse na nsu tɔ gu Peru mpoano. Chan Chan nye atsɛkyɛw kurow a ɔso kyɛn biara wɔ wiase, na ndzɛmba a ɔwɔ mu a ɔyɛ mmerɛw no yɛ adze a ɔhaw adwen. El Niño nsu kɛse a ɔtɔ no sɛe Chan Chan adan no ase. Nsu a ɔtɔ kɛse nso ma nsu a ɔtɔ gu fam no kɔ sor, na ber a nsu a ɔtɔ gu adan yi ase no, nkyen a efĩ wom na afifidze a enyin betumi aba, na ɔno sɛe Chan Chan fapem no mudzi mu kura bio. Wiadze nyinara hyew, dɛ ɔba sɛnea ebinom hyɛɛ ho nkɔm no a, ɔbɛma saa nkɛntsɛndo bɔn yi akɔ enyim, ɔsiandɛ nhwɛso ahorow bi kyerɛ dɛ wim nsakrae ma nsutɔ a ɔkɔ sor no yɛ mmerɛw.

Hwɛ iyi So[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

  • Moche Bɔnsa Valley (Moche Valley)
  • Chimú Amambra (Chimú Culture)
  • Inka Ahenman No (Inka empire)
  • Andes mbepɔw (Andes mountains)
  • Nsuka a Nsu Fa Mu Ma Wɔdze Gugu Nduadzewa Do (Irrigation)
  • Erosion
  • Wiadze Agyapadze Mbea a Ɔwɔ Esian Mu (World Heritage Sites in Danger)
  • Spondylus
  • Peru