Assur

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Assur
human settlement, archaeological site, ancient city
Inception2500 BCE Sesa mu
CountryIraq Sesa mu
Capital ofOld Assyrian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire, Neo-Assyrian Empire Sesa mu
Located in the administrative territorial entitySaladin Governorate Sesa mu
Located in time zoneUTC+03:00 Sesa mu
Located in or next to body of waterTigris Sesa mu
Coordinate location35°27′24″N 43°15′45″E Sesa mu
Heritage designationUNESCO World Heritage Site Sesa mu
World Heritage criteriaWorld Heritage selection criterion (iii), World Heritage selection criterion (iv) Sesa mu
Director of archaeological fieldworkLeopold Messerschmidt Sesa mu
Map

Aššur a wɔsan frɛ no Ashur na Qal’at Sherqat, na ɔyɛ Asiria Ɔman Dadaw no ahenkurow (2025–1750 A.Y.B.), finimfin Asiria Ahemman (1365–1050 A.Y.B.), na ber bi, Asiria Ahemman Foforo (911– 608 A.Y.B.). Kurow no nkae da Tigris Asubɔntsen no atɔe fam mpoano, wɔ baabi a ɔnye ne fã, Zab Ketekete no hyia no atsifi fam, wɔ baabi a mprempren wɔfrɛ no Iraq, pɛpɛɛpɛ wɔ al-Shirqat Mantam a ɔwɔ Saladin Mantam no mu.

Kurow no ankasa a wɔfaa no kɔɔ do bɛyɛ mfe 4,000, fi Ahemman Mfiase Ber no do kosi afeha a ɔtɔ do 14 Y.B. Bea no yɛ Wiadze Egyapadze Bea, osiandɛ wɔdze aka saa ahyehyɛdze no mbea a ɔwɔ esiane mu ho wɔ afe 2003 mu wɔ ntawntawdze a ɔpaee wɔ Iraq ntua a U.S. dzii enyim wɔ afe 2003 mu no ekyi na ɔnam abura a wɔresusu dɛ ɔbɛba bea no bi do. Assur da bea a Nimrud wɔ no anafo fam kilomita 65 (akwansin 60) na Niniwe anafo fam kilomita 100 (akwansin 60).

Nhwehwɛmu Ho Abakɔsɛm[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Germanfo fam tutufo fii ase hwehwɛɛ bea a Assur wɔ no wɔ 1898 mu. Friedrich Delitzsch fii ase tutu fam wɔ afe 1900 mu, na kuw bi a wofi Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft a mfiase no Robert Koldewey dzi hɔn enyim na ekyir Walter Andrae dzii hɔn enyim na ɔtoaa do wɔ afe 1903–1913 mu. Wohuu dɔtse abopon bɛbor 16,000 a hɔn akyerɛw cuneiform nkyerɛwee wom. Germanfo no wiaa ndzɛmba a wohui no dze kɔɔ Pergamon Tsetse ndzɛmba Akorae a ɔwɔ Berlin no.

Nnansa yi ara, B. Hrouda tutuu Ashur maa Ludwig Maximilian Sukuupɔn a ɔwɔ Munich na Bavaria Amandze Dwumadzibea wɔ 1990 mu. Wɔ saa ber koro no ara mu, wɔ 1988 na 1989 mu no, na R. Dittmann na ɔgyina Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft ananmu reyɛ bea no ho edwuma.

Edzin[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Aššur yɛ kurow no dzin, asase a kurow no dzi do, na nye nyame a ɔhwɛ do a ɔhɔfo no faa hɔn dzin fir mu no, sɛnea Asiria man mũ no nyinara a ɔka dza ɔnnɛ wɔfrɛ no Iraq atsifi fam, Siria atsifi fam epuei na anafo fam epuei no yɛe no Kurokuro. Ɔnnɛ wɔda do ara hu Asiriafo wɔ finimfin Epuei nyinara, tsitsir wɔ Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey, na Atubrafo a wɔwɔ atɔe fam wiadze no mu. Assur nso nye dzin Syria na nsɛmfua a wɔdze frɛ Syriac Kristofo no mfiase, eyinom yɛ mfiase no Indo-European a wonya fii Asiria mu, na mfehaha pii no ɔfa Asiria na Asiriafo nkutoo ho (hwɛ Etymology of Syria) ansa na wɔdze edzi dwuma nso wɔ Levant na emufo a Seleucid Ahemman no dze maa hɔn wɔ afeha a ɔtɔ do 3 A.Y.B.

Abakɔsɛm[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Kɔber Mber No Mfiase[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Sɛnea The Oxford Companion to the Bible kyerɛ no, wɔdze Assur "sii anhweatsam bi do wɔ Tigris atɔe fam bɛyɛ kilomita 35 wɔ atsifi fam a ɔnye Zab Asubɔntsen a ɔwɔ fam no hyia no atsifi fam". Fam tutu da no edzi dɛ na bea a kurow no wɔ no wɔ mfirihyia apem a ɔtɔ do ebaasa (3) A.Y.B. Ná eyi da do ara yɛ Sumerfo ber, ansa na Asiria reba. Wohuu kurow no nkae a ekyɛ kyɛn biara wɔ Ishtar asɔrefie no fapem mu, na Ahemfie Dadaw no mu nso. Wɔ ber a edzi hɔ no mu no, na ahemfo a wofi Akkadia Ahemman no mu na wodzi kurow no do. Wɔ Ur Ahemman a ɔtɔ do ebaasa (3) no mu no, na Asiria amradofo a wɔhyɛ Sumerfo ase na wodzi kurow no do.

Nruhunahuna a Wɔdze Ma Assur[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]

Wɔdze bea no too UNESCO’s Wiadze Egyapadze Ho Nsɛm a Hɔnahyehyɛ a wɔ esiane mu wɔ afe 2003 mu, saa ber no na bea no to esiane mu esiane abura kɛse bi a ɔreba a anka ɔbɛma tsetse fam tutu bea no akɔ nsu ase ntsi. Wogyaee abura no edwuma no ber a wɔtow hyɛɛ Iraq do wɔ afe 2003 mu no ekyi ber tsiaa bi.

Asasesin a etwa tsetse bea no ho ehyia no, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) na ɔfaa ho wɔ afe 2015. Osiandɛ na ISIL asɛe tsetse abakɔsɛm mbea dodow bi, a nkurow Hatra, Khorsabad, na Nimrud ka ho ntsi, ehu sɔree dɛ Assur bɛyɛ saa wɔbɛsɛe no nso. Sɛnea nsɛm bi kyerɛ no, Assur abankɛse no sɛee anaadɛ wɔsɛee no kɛse wɔ May 2015 mu dzenam IS mufo a wɔdze mfir a wɔdze tow ndzɛmba a hɔnayɛ no fofor dzii dwuma do. AP amannyebɔ bi a ɔfir Mumu 2016 ekyi a Iraq asraafo no san faa bea no, kaa dɛ akofo no bɔɔ mmɔdzen dɛ wɔbɛsɛe kuropɔn no abrannaa akɛseɛ no, nanso wɔkɔɔ do gyinaa hɔ na ɔhɔnom abakɔsɛm kyerɛwfo bi kaa ɔsɛeɛ no ho asɛm dɛ ɔyɛ "ketewa".

Ɔde besi Kwakwar 2017 no, kuw no nnyi bea no do tumi bio; nanso, ɔnyɛ dza ahobammbɔ wom a ɔbɛma fam tutu ho abenfo etumi asusuw ho.

Hwɛ Iyi Nso[sesa mu | sesa ekyirsɛm]